Ancient Egypt chronology and dating: what a mess !

by Gigal

This post is also available in: French

To help to clarify this confusion of dating, I will try to explain it as simply as possible … This confusion on the dating and Ancient Egypt chronology is mainly due to the fact that we still have to discover 90% of the physical evidence of the Ancient Egyptian  legacy  because we need to excavate much more the territory … Indeed, we lack of many elements because we are only at the beginning of Egyptology, it is a science still recent, dating from the campaign of Egypt by Bonaparte (from 1798 to August 31, 1801) , who had brought with him a group of 160 extraordinary scientists who begun to map and document the monumental and archaeological finds of the country.


Bonaparte at the pyramids by Maurice Orange [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

And today, every day, archaeologists find something, dig new sites! It is a fantastic quest that takes a lot of time because of the tons of sand accumulated for centuries and because three months a year, sandstorms rages in Egypt and covers what has been discovered the few previous months!

But let us deepen this problem of dating by speaking of the first Egyptian writings. Two facts are dominant:                                                                                                                                                                  First, Until now, the oldest recognized historical document in Egypt was the Narmer palette, found at the end of the 19th century in the ruins of the ancient Hierakonpolis (Nekhen) and dated 3100 BC.. In 1999, Dr. John Coleman Darnell of the Yale team,  in Gebel Tjauti, a cliff in the desert, 20 km northwest of Luxor, found inscriptions appearing to be very ancient hieroglyphs and a scene with symbols of more than 5,250 years representing a victorious king. That is to say, dating from before the first Pharaoh of the First Dynasty in the classical list that we recognize.…and when you know that the invention of writing is regarded as the great divide between prehistory and history, this discovery pushed back the beginning of Egypt well before the one commonly admitted. It will be necessary one day, to accept the existence of the dynasties before the so-called first ones (officially called the ZERO dynasty!), Whereas we have plenty of evidence today of previous dynasties! In any case, the discovery of Coleman is a significant addition to a growing body of evidence that the first true writing, began in Egypt – and not in the ancient Sumer (in what is now Irak), as the researchers have believed.

Gigal going inside Hierakonpolis

Gigal going inside Hiérakonpolis, Nekhen archaeologic site-Photo©Gigal-2016

Then, there are the findings of Dr Dreyer, director of the German Archaeological Institute in Egypt, who found in an Abydos tomb, inscriptions with phonetic elements, on pots, bones and ivory plates, very old hieroglyphics , and it was dated earlier than 3250 B.C. :

‘This precedes writing in Mesopotamia, which started early as an accounting system but took time to move from simple pictures to signs that represent sounds of speech.”

Thanks to recent excavations we can be sure that dynasties existed before Dynasty one and that they were historical ones, with writings !!! It was completely denied a few years ago !

Khasekhemwy fortress, Abydos by Gigal

Archaeologist walking behind Abydos and beside the predynastic tombs in the Khasekhemwy fort-Photo©Gigal-2016

So, there are dating evidences not yet discovered for the chronology, because of the many sites not yet excavated (over 80% of the territory) or  evidences just discovered and in the process of being accepted even if it is long and unbearable for some people.

Then, there are: Ancient evidences forgotten, or poorly translated! Thus, the famous French Egyptologist Maspero,  who said in 1885 about the early texts of the ancient Egyptians:

They were already perfectly composed before the first dynasty.


Gaston Maspero, French egyptologist (1846-1916)-Public domain-Photo1883-

It is nevertheless extraordinary to note that the earliest Egyptologists, men of the field, and with a genuine knowledge of the whole Egyptian territory for having traversed it, in its totality (which is not the case for those of now !), had seen right, and it is totally forgotten! And Maspero is not the only one. We have also, the work on the first dynasty made by the French archeologist Emile Amelineau around 1890 who found evidences of the existence of an advanced people before the first official dynasty. Amelineau found many artefacts in Abydos. The name of this black people was: Anu / Aunu (nothing to do with Annunaki). They have built the cities of ESNA (Anutseni), Arment (Anu Menti), Gebelein (Anu), they had extensive agriculture, cattle breeding, they had fortress, they knew writing, metal tools, etc… And experts like Chandler for example, think that Osiris, Horus, Hermes etc., were Aunu . And Anu was also the name of Osiris, and he was supposed to be the 4th Pharaoh on Earth, then the Greeks called him: Onnuphris: “The Good”.



Egyptologist Flinders Petrie- Public Domain Via Wikkicommons-

The great Flinders Petrie found at Abydos a fantastic Aunu document: It is a faience tile in which is depicted a chief Aunu with his name and address at Ermant. But they are not the only ones predynastic: you also have the MESNITU coming from Punt, in Somalia. They were metalworkers. There are also other groups like the Beja and the Rekhytu coming from Coptos in the Nile Valley. There are the AAMU with Asian traits but dressed as Egyptians and living in the mountains and the NEHESY coming from Southern Sudan, the TEMEHU from the western desert and Libya (and Tassili drawings from southeastern Algeria), and all these people were not simple natives but were very organized and had a lot of knowledge.

An archaeological discovery of a much earlier dating of civilization was discovered a few years ago, 250 km south of Aswan in Quadan, in tombs with physical proofs of high-level civilization. The dating obtained is from 13000 to 9000 years BC, which is much older than the Sumerian period (or even the period of Ubaïd beginning only 6000 years BC). A Belgian team also discovered a human skeleton near Denderah, in the Taramsa hill with pottery dating from 30,000 to 33,000 years ago. (look at the pdf in bibliography)We see here how necessary it is to excavate incessantly and even more in this vast territory that is Egypt to strengthen the truth.

Palermo stelae

The Palermo Stone-via Wikki Commons- Public Domain-

Ancient Egyptians have always regarded their civilization as a direct inheritance of divine beings that existed in Egypt thousands of years before the official dynasties that we recognize today. And this is attested in the Papyrus of Turin (the royal canon of Turin) dating from Ramses II, listing all the pharaohs and not only the dynastics we know, but also the so-called “divine” pharaohs before the reign of the first ” Officially recognized “: Menes.  Ancient Egyptians were not in the habit of mixing fiction with reality especially in lists as important as those of the leaders of their country and they did not lie, so one must one day consider the real existence of these Pharaohs before Menes, as so many different documents attest to their existence. But suddenly it is a lot of things in relation to the geopolitics and the beliefs that would be turned upside down, putting in play many collateral datings in the Middle East

And then we also have the so-called Stele of Palermo giving the names of  these divine pharaohs. And in this list there is Horus for example, who is considered to have ruled as a normal human person.

We also have fortunately, the Egyptian historian Manetho, three centuries before Christ: his Egyptian name was Ma-n-Thot, the Master of Secrets and he had access to the Library of Alexandria and wrote an history of Egypt in 30 volumes for his pharaoh.

He is an historian recognized as very serious by the academics of today even they regard him as the Father of Egyptology as far as his work on his list of Pharaohs of the 1st Dynasty is concerned, because his dating is still in use today in the universities. But the funny thing is that: they completely avoid his list part before the 1st dynasty, they do not want to consider his list as a whole! And  despite the fact that Manetho has told us many very interesting details about the so-called “Divine dynasties”. He explained that they are divided into 3 parts: ” The Gods”,  the “Heroes” with “supernatural” skills and the “Manes”: Glorious beings in fact our spiritual ancestors. As for the Gods, Manetho explained that they are divided into 7 kinds and that: “These gods are originating from the earth and that then, they have become celestial, going to heaven.” Thus: “native” from the earth, it is interesting !

Gigal in the undergrounds of Egypt

Gigal in the undergrounds of Egypt-Photo©Gigal-2016

Osiris himself says in the Egyptian Book of the Dead (the right translation of the title is: The book of coming forth by day):

” The tunnels of the Earth gave birth to me!”

They were intraterrestrials! This is why may be, the underground network is so important in Egypt! Plutarch, the influential Greek philosopher and historian wrote: “… Osiris became the Pharaoh of Egypt with Isis and they built Theba (Luxor).” Osiris and the other gods had, according the ancients Texts, a real earthly, historical life.

These historians, all are speaking first of a genealogy of the Gods reigning in Egypt over 200 years and then of the “Shemsu Hor” reigning for 13,400 years, and then the “official” pharaohs that we know. The reign of each “divine” king is about hundreds of years, so this is unacceptable for academics. But I ask then, why they accept for example, the long life span of the prophets of the Bible alike Enoch for example, who lived 360 years? Many factors can explain today such a lifetime … Earth’s gravity was may be different at the time, aging was may be slower, density could be less, DNA could be better protected, and so on…

So all this, is adding to the confusion of the chronology and this, of course, has great repercussions on the dating. Moreover, other errors occur sometimes when the dating of a monument is made. For example, for the Great Pyramid: samples of mortar  were taken  neither high enough nor deep enough in it. And the problem is that the Pharaohs of all the dynasties have made restorations of their monuments. And so, one often gets a dating of one of the restorations, but not the dating of the origin of a monument, and that happens more often than one thinks! Not long ago, academics refused the mere fact that multiple restorations were carried out by different pharaohs! Fortunately it changes. But we also tend to take the last cartouche affixed to a monument as a reliable dating when often, several Pharaohs had affixed their cartouches before, erasing their predecessors.

Only field people, having worked on sites during years, and having the general archaeological culture of the whole of Egypt are able to determine a good dating and  having an open and impartial mind to consider a chronology as a whole .

Text, Photos & collage ©AntoineGigal-2016

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Émile Amélineau, Nouvelles Fouilles d'Abydos, 1895-6, 1896-7 & 1897-8  (full  report of the excavations), Paris: Ed. Leroux, 1901, 1902 & 1904-5.
 Émile Amélineau, Prolégomènes à l'étude de la religion égyptienne, Paris: Ed. Leroux, 1916.
Van Peer & Vermersch : Taramsa burial 210
 Dr. G. Elliot Smith, The Ancient Egyptians, Harper, 1923.
 Dimitri Meeks, Chapter 4: "Locating Punt", Mysterious Lands, David B. O'Connor & Stephen Quirke, UCL Press, 2003.

Antoine Gigal:  Egypt before the pharaohs,2010 :

This post is also available in: French

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Marcelo Gaye December 18, 2016 - 2:26 am

Thank you Ms. Gilgal. More confirmation for me on the longevity of mankind, the art of writing and the wisdom of the ancients: much, much older and wiser than we ever thought. Most scientific research I come across adheres to very common concepts wrongly accepted as truth, so it is hard to come across accurate, honest research as yours. Everyone seams to be preserving their jobs more than truth, hahaha!!. As an avid Hebrew Scriptures researcher (and other ancient writings, on my own), through them I have come to understand the history of mankind (in more general terms) almost exactly as ancient Egyptian, Sumerian and South American texts describe it: gods (not god) created earth and man (Genesis1, Elohim). Later, the sons of the gods arrive on earth, a much higher culture, perfect I would say (Genesis 2, the one called Adam brings the divine seed and knowledge from far away. His descendants, Noah and sons, after some time of adaptation, spread it as they leave the “garden”, the special small area where they were placed away from Humans, towards the west, to “Shinar”). result? sudden appearance of knowledge of all things and sciences, lots of it, into all corners of the world.
Since I was little, observing the great suffering of mankind have prompted this questions to me: who are we? and if we are the creation of some greater being, what is the purpose of being? and why was it done this way?…therefore I search what my true nature is and that of the world. Thank you Ms. Gigal your research is very exiting!!!

Heidi November 17, 2016 - 4:16 pm

Ms Gigal, your archaeological work & research is so important for the whole world to finally understand humanity’s heritage of Ancient Egypt! I have been following you for years. The information you give in all your articles is invaluable for us all! Thank you so much for such an insightful blog site!

I feel that I have memories of very ancient times, and I have always felt that the tunnels, not just in Egypt, but all over the world, hold the KEY to understanding our ancient past. I do believe that in ancient times the earth was less dense & so were its inhabitants, making it possible to work our way deep within earth through the tunnels. Somehow deep earth held the properties that connected us to the stars! We are made of stars, therefore we have need of the energies of the stars to stay healthy in mind, body & spirit. We have lost the wisdom of the stars, and how to access their energy patterns. And I feel that the research into our very distant past is the only way to recover this important knowledge – possibly our only way of surviving today!

Gigal November 25, 2016 - 2:10 am

Dear Heidi: thank you so much ! it’s going directly to my heart. You so right when you write: “research into our very distant past is the only way to recover this important knowledge – possibly our only way of surviving today!” Thank you again.

JERONIMO ORTIZ FLORES November 17, 2016 - 10:17 am

I love your way of explain arquelogy, thank you for share the real and amaizing truth Antoine

Gigal December 12, 2016 - 11:34 pm

Thank you !

Constance Todd Smith November 17, 2016 - 10:17 am

I so appreciate your scholarship and insight. It can be vexing to those of us who read voraciously on this subject that the “orthodox ” Egyptological establishment refuses to consider the vast amount of evidence that points to and supports a “pre-historic” civilization and culture of high wisdom. An advanced culture of humans whose understanding of science, engineering, archeology, cosmology, mathematics, etc. far surpasses what we know and even understand on many levels today. The Darwinian mentality that suggests that our current civilization is at the zenith of human creativity due to the linear unfolding of The Theory of Evolution which suggests that, “No one can be smarter or more advanced than we are today,” is on its face preposterous. However, that is where we are with that group.

I prefer to have a more open and curious approach to the extant body of knowledge that exists to lead many of us to the deeper, richer, and thoroughly more interesting conclusion, that the pre-history of humanity has a much richer past than we fully understand. And I so appreciate those auto-didactic, more leading-edge egyptologists such as yourself (and John Anthony West who I greatly admire) who are not constrained and restrained by the formulaic, stilted and thoroughly myopic view that is in the history books, but rather serves up a 5 star cuisine that is incredibly fecund and fascinating and keeps us all clamorung to know more.

I so appreciate your efforts and point of view. It is refreshing, educational and speaks to that deeper part of me that knows we as humans are so much more than academia gives us credit for.

I am moving to Egypt in January with my family in January and I so look forward to making your acquaintance in person. Thank you for being such a grand teacher on this the subject that has intrigued and titillated me my entire life and now due to a delightful confluence of events and circumstances I am able to realize a life long dream of playing in the land of the great ones! You Gigal exemplifies the open mindedness that is the hallmark of a true teacher; one who posits “Why not?” when faced with evidence! I look forward to your future articles.

All the best,

Constance Smith


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