The secrets of the artificial stone in Ancient Egypt

by Gigal
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This post is also available in: frFrench

It was important to summarize everything we know about the so-called artificial stone. Before examining in detail the secrets of the artificial stone in Ancient Egypt, in order to understand its importance, its extensive use, and the richness of it, let us return to the divine intervention in the creation of the world by the Ancient Egyptians .

The Divine in the Matter



The creator god Khnum (ancient Egyptian: Hnmwthe master of fresh water”) is said to “knead” humanity on his potter’s wheel with Nile silt and other minerals, such as natron and mefkat (mafkat), as it is shown in the Qur’anic and biblical genesis. This gives a lapidary (stone) matter called : “eternal ” the  “Ka”, but which is also the name of our divine double.

Indeed Khnum is supposed to create us on his potter’s wheel, at the same time that our divine double, our eternal soul. It thus shapes both material and immortal: that which is going to be our body and at the same time: the immaterial and eternal matter, the “ka” that we rejoin to our death as the Ancient Egyptians say. Let us not forget that to say that someone was dead, the Ancients Egyptians said that: “he was going to join his Ka” … There is already a complex process differentiating subtle and other matters: the fact of “agglomerating” both is a gesture that reproduces divine intervention in the creation of the world and the human soul.

We see here that the agglomeration is a sacred gesture written in the very foundations of the history of the Creation of the world. So we will see that re-agglomerated stone and the use of binders to get this famous soft stone not only was a common practice in Egypt but was in line with the Egyptian genesis.

Let us add to this that the hieroglyphic sign of Khnoum the Creator, is a stone vase as hard as those of the era of Naqada (3500 BC), and that the hieroglyph for the verb to build is “Khusi (A34 Gardiner) who represents a man pounding materials in a vase … and also that one of the titles of Imhotep, the great architect is: ” the Opener of stone. “


Gigal inspecting the pyramids stones in GizaPhoto©AntoineGigal-2017

But before I speak of the Egyptian proofs and formulas, I must explain to you certain things. As soon as the words “artificial stone” are pronounced in the West, there is often a shielding and disapproval reactions (often of scientists), as if it was an aberration of the mind, something that could not exist! And yet this is the mark of great ignorance! Because in reality, many other scientists have looked into the matter and have been able to prove not only the existence of this “soft, or artificial stone” but also all the processes to achieve this result.

The Brillant Researchers


Corentin Louis Kervran 1901-1983

For example, to start gradually, the French passionate researcher and engineer, Corentin Louis Kervran, who demonstrated that under the effect of certain bacteria: granite is kaolinized: “it is replaced on one or several cm thick by a soft rock that can be cut with a knife without difficulty “. So even the hardest stone can be metamorphosed and softened! In 1959, Kervran explains the result of certain observations by the fusion or fission of atoms, without detectable radioactivity, for living beings or in geology. He calls this change in the state of matter: biological transmutation, also known as cold nuclear transmutation or Kervran Effect.
In passing, it is interesting to note that in France this man of genius but very humble, was not really recognized, (Evident jealousies of small officials against him. Often great discoveries are buried or put to the benefit of others), but just see its Wikipedia in English or Russian and compare with the French version to see that! And many have had to be inspired by it without giving him any recognition since today geo-engineering uses micro-organisms to generate mutations in a material deemed “dead” (as for the Terra Preta of Brazil which is a land that self-generates without becoming impoverished).           Jean-Marie_Lehn       

Jean Marie Lehn French Chemist:
Then, the  French Nobel Prize in Chemistry (in 1987): Jean-Marie Lehn who has defined a new field of chemistry: the supramolecular chemistry, which focuses on intermolecular forces and associations of different chemical species. He expanded his research to include catalysis and supramolecular transport processes, intermolecular attractions of what we would call “fragile objects”, such as micelles, polymers, or clays …


Dr Joseph Davidovits

And, when we talk about polymers, geopolymers, we have the famous Professor Joseph Davidovits who has done an absolutely remarkable job, especially on the stone in Egypt, although he is also the prey like the others of heavy jealousies or professional incomprehension. (It is enough to see the shameless remarks on its wikipedia to have an idea). He is the inventor of the concept of geopolymer and geopolymerization chemistry. Specialist in Roman concretes, he has published hundreds of scientific articles and many patents. He is a specialist in the manufacture of artificial stone objects (hard stone vases) by the Ancient Egyptians. He founded the Institute of Applied Archaeological Sciences (IAPAS) in Miami to study ancient technology. He has made numerous experiments in his Institute of Geopolymers   proving that it is possible to obtain a very solid reagglomerated stone by a mixture poured into molds and which solidifies, between others: with limestone disintegrated in water mixed with a binder consisting of natron and lime.
Even if all the pyramid stones are not reconstituted concrete, according to my careful observation of more than twenty years, it makes for me no doubt that, much especially concerning the exterior seem to be what Davidovits is advancing.


West face Khafra pyramid ©AntoineGigal-2017

So what are geopolymers? They are synthetic minerals, chemical stones … yes, you read it right. Let us not forget that nature itself realizes this, but on cycles of time very long of  several million years, it is  in fact re-agglomerated materials. From a natural eroded and protruding rock (whether limestone or some other type of hard rock), it can be transformed into a very hard stone by giving it a compact structure thanks to a binder. Davidovits explains why geologists do not see anything:
“This is due to the geological glue which, although artificial, is seen by geologists either as an impurity, hence unnecessary to study, or as a natural binder. At best, the analytical tools and the working methods of geologists take cement for a perfectly natural “micritic binder”. A geologist not trained in the chemistry of geopolymers will assert in good faith that the stones are natural. 


Part of Irtysen Steal in the Louvre Museum

For Egypt the binder is a salt of natron (sodium carbonate) and we will see this in more detail with the evidence that the Ancient Egyptians left us as in  the stele of Irtysen that you can go to see in the Louvre (C 14 At the Louvre) in Paris, France.

The Written Evidences of the existence of artificial stone in Ancient Egypt

Fragment of Ti bas reliefs

The stele of Irtysen:
The stela of Irtysen retraces the autobiography of the sculptor Irtysen under Pharaoh Mentouhotep, XI th dynasty (2000 BC). He presents the technique of making “synthetic” stone (called “casting”). Irtysen declares himself the depository of a secret knowledge of the “making” of stones and tells us that he uses a mold to “melt” his stone statues and a mixture of materials and that in his own words: “solidified in molds “and thus allowed him to reproduce any object. He even adds that this material at the end of the process could not be diluted in water or burned. Irtysen was therefore expected to work with chemical binders mixed with minerals. Dr. Davidovits said he reproduced the process by grinding vitreous silicates that are actually polymeric binders. The binder of re-agglomerated stone is the result of geosynthesis (a geopolymer), he says, which creates two natural minerals: limestone and hydrated feldspar.
But there is not only the stele of Irtysen, there is also the fresco of Ti of the Fifth Dynasty (2450 BC) which brings “its water to the mill” as we say in France.
The fresco of Ti:
This fresco shows us sculptors working on a wooden statue and making a stone statue with mixtures in vases. What is great is that this fresco shows us the difference between sculpting a statue (here wooden with hieroglyphic signs describing well the cutting of matter), and the shaping of a statue in “synthetic” stone (with the hieroglyphics: “made of the hand of man” and the action of “synthesizing”) and the mixture of chemicals to shape this statue in vases. We shall go on to speak in detail of the possible formulas. To see more about the tomb of Ti: read my article: Gigal_Ti_Article 

Then, there is  the famous stele of the Famine:

This inscription on a rock on the island of Sehel near Elephantine island contains 650 hieroglyphics designating either rocks and minerals or their processes of transformation. It features Pharaoh Djoser, the god Khnum and the king’s architect Imhotep. Now in the column 12 of the text on the stele it says: “With these products they built …” Note that we do not speak about types of stones but products. Then columns 18 to 20 Khnoum gives Djoser the necessary products for the construction of the sacred monuments and these are all minerals! In this list no mention of hard or compact stones such as limestone, sandstone or granite. But as a temple or a pyramid can not be built with simple minerals, as Dr. Davidovits points out, it is a list of minerals used to create a binder that will give the re-agglomerated stone.


Stele of the famine ©AntoineGigal-2017

It’s time to talk about the process: The secrets of the artificial stone or rather re-agglomerated!
Analyzes by the German geochemist D.D.Klemm, as quoted by Dr. Davidovits, show that 97 to 100% of the blocks of the Great Pyramid originate from the soft and clay layer located in the Wadi below the Giza Plateau. Yet even the “classical” Egyptologist as M. Lehner admits that the Egyptians used as a pruning stone an unusable friable limestone! It turns out, even if it seems incredible: that the ancient Egyptians did not use the hard limestone yet close to the pyramids, the one more indicated to make stones of size! (except in rare cases for restorations later).


sphinx head and stones row©AntoineGigal-2017

The geologist L. Gauri demonstrates that this fragile limestone containing  kaolinite clay, dissolves in water, exactly as the body of the sphinx has demonstrated, while its head has resisted thousands of years erosion because it was sculpted in the hard geological layer. It is therefore not even necessary to crush this fragile limestone because it forms a limestone mud during the floods of the Nile: it is only necessary to collect it! The reactive minerals are then added to this sludge: the hydrated silicate of copper and alumina (which Cheops exploited in the Sinai in abundance), the Egyptian natron which is a carbonate of soda (exploited in the wadi Natrum) and the lime from the ashes of wood and plants.

The secrets of the artificial stone formula

Thus the mud is poured into baskets, then it is poured back into the molds of wood or bricks directly on the construction site. Then this mud with its minerals hardened … This limestone re-agglomerated by geochemical reaction hardens naturally. It has been calculated that the stone blocks consist of 90% to 95% limestone with aggregates of fossil shells and 5 to 10% of this binder, this “geopolymeric” cement based on alumina-silicates. This binder of re-agglomerated stone is therefore the result of a geosynthesis which creates two natural minerals: hydrated feldspathic and limestone which has deceived many geologists who have had the wool pulled well over their eyes.

To summarize here is the complete formula of the “artificial stone secret”:

  • Kaolinite clay containing limestone is diluted in water
  • In this liquid, natron is poured, that is to say : sodium carbonate
  • It is poured lime of ashes from plants and wood. At this stage of natron + lime = Sodium Hydroxide. A caustic soda is obtained catalyzing the clay
  • Calcite is then obtained from the hydrosodalite: Carnallite salt, that is to say magnesium chloride, is then added. A cement paste is then obtained.
  • Fragments of fossil shells, rubble and nilotic silt are added: soft limestone concrete has been obtained and poured into wooden or oiled molds, for example.The sun dries everything very quickly and we get limestone blocks reconstituted, very, very solid. That’s it !

The “looking very molded stones” in the valley templeofKhafraPhoto©AntoineGigal-2017

And what seems extraordinary is that each type of stone including the hardest as anorthositic gneiss would have its binder and would make geopolymers in granite, sandstone etc … And today dozens of scientific texts are attesting of it ! Still how long some will deny a certain knowledge of the chemical sciences to the Ancient Egyptians? !!

If you like this article you will be also interested to see this video: Alchemist_of_Cairo

         Antoine Gigal

Text, Photos ©®AntoineGigal-2017
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Mefkat: Antoine Gigal :

Kervran Corentin Louis, note finale de Olivier Costa de Beauregard, Preuves en Biologie de Transmutations à Faible Énergie, Maloine, Paris, 1975, 312 p. (ISBN 2-224-00178-9)

Kervran Corentin Louis: Preuves en Géologie et Physique de Transmutations à faible Énergie, Librairie Maloine S.A., Paris, 1973.

Text of Irtysen stela: Transliteration : Irtysen text

Davidovits, Joseph (1983). Alchemy and the Pyramids. Saint Quentin, France: Geopolymer Institute.

Davidovits, Joseph (2009). Why the Pharaohs Built the Pyramids with Fake Stones. Saint Quentin, France: Geopolymer Institute.

Institut des géopolymères du Dr. Davidovits:  geopolymer institute 

Barsoum M.W., Ganguly A. and Hug G., J. Am. Ceram:  Microstructural Evidence of Reconstituted Limestone Blocks in the Great Pyramids of Egypt,  Soc. 89[12], 3788-3796, 2006.

Kenneth J. D. MacKenzie, M. E. Smith, A. Wong, J. V. Hanna, B. Barryand M. W. Barsoum: Were the casing stones of Senefru’s Bent Pyramid in Dahshour cast or carved? Multinuclear NMR evidence,  Mater. Lett., 2011, 65, 350.

D.D.Klemm & D.D. Schneider: Time and Strata bound Ore deposits, 1977

This post is also available in: frFrench

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1 comment

Shaab September 28, 2017 - 10:13 pm

So much informations there! Thank you so much ! Love your insights !


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